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Constitution of Malaysia (1957) – 10: Public Services

PART X – PUBLIC SERVICES

Article 132

(1) For the purposes of this Constitution, the public services are -

(a) the armed forces;

(b) the judicial and legal service;

(c) the general public service of the Federation;

(d) the police force;

(e) the railway service;

(f) the joint public services mentioned in Article 133;

(g) the public service of each State; and

(h) the education service.

(2) Except as otehrwise expressly provided by this Constitution, the qualifications for appointment and conditions of service of persons in the public services other than those mentioned in paragraph (g) of Clause (1) may bge regulated by federal law and, subject to the provisions of any such law, by Yang di-Pertuan Agong;

and the qualifications for appointment and conditions of service of persons in the public service of any State may be regulated by State law and, subject to the provisions of any such law, by the Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of that State.

(2A) Except as expressly provided by this Constitution, every person who is a member of any of the services mentioned in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (h) of Clause (1) holds office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, and, except as expressly provided by the Constitution of the State, every person who is a member of the public service of a State holds office during the pleasure of the Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri.

(3) The public service shall not be taken to comprise -

(a) the office of any member of the administration in the Federation or a State; or

(b) the office of President, Speaker, Deputy President, Deputy Speaker or member of either House of Parliament or of the Legislative Assembly of a State; or

(c) the office of judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court; or

(d) the office of member of any Commission or Council established by this Constitution or any corresponding Commission or Council established by the Constitution of a State; or

(e) such diplomatic posts as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may by order prescribe, being post which but for the order would be posts in the general public service of the Federation.

(4) References in this Part, except in Articles 136 and 147 to persons in the public service or to members of any of the public services shall not apply to:

(a) the Clerk to either House of Parliament or any member of the Staff of Parliament; or

(b) the Attorney General or, if provisions for the manner of his appointment and removal from office is specifically included in the Constitution of the State, or if he is appointed otherwise than from among the members of the judicial and legal service or of the public service of the State, the legal adviser of any State; or

(c) a member of the personal staff of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or of a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri; or

(d) in the case of Malacca and Penang, if provision os made by State law for their appointment -

(i) the President of the Religious Affairs Department;

(ii) the Secretary of the Religious Affairs Department;

(iii) the Mufti;

(iv) the Kadi Besar; or

(v) a Kadi.

Article 133

(1) Joint services, common to the Federation and one more of the States or, at the request of the States concerned, to two or more States, may be established by federal law.

(2) Where a member of any of the public services is employed:

(a) partly for federal purposes and partly for State purposes; or

(b) for the purposes of two or more States;

the proportion, if any, of his renumeration payable by the Federation and the State or States concerned or, as the case may be, by each of the States concerned, shall, subject to federal law, be determined by agreement or, in default of agreement, by the Commission whose jurisdiction extends to him.

Article 134

(1) The Federation may, at the request of a State, second any member of any of the services mentioned in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d) or (f) of Clause (1) of Article 132 to the service of that State; and a State may at the request of the Federation or of another State second any member of its own public service to the service of the Federation or, as the case may be, of that other State.

(2) A person seconded under this Article shall remain a member of the service to which he belongs, but his renumeration shall be paid by the State to whose service he is seconded or, if he is seconded to the service of the Federation, by the Federation.

Article 135

(1) No member of any of the services mentioned in paragraphs (b) to (h) of Clause (1) of Article 132 shall be dismissed or reduced in rank by an authority subordinate to that which, at the time of the dismissal or reduction, has power to appoint a member of that service of equal rank;

Provided that in its application to members of the services mentioned in paragraphs (g) of Clause (1) of Article 132 this Clause shall not apply to any law which the legislature of any State, other than Penang and Malacca, may make to provide that all powers and functions of a Public Service Commission of such State, other than the power of first appointment to the permanent or pensionable establishment, be exercised by a Board appointed by the Ruler of such State:

And provided further that this Clause shall not apply to a case where a member of any of the services mentioned in this Clause is dismissed or reduced in rank by an authority in pursuance of a power delegated to it by a Commission to which this Part applies, and this proviso shall be deemed to have been an integral part of this Clause as from Merdeka Day.

(2) No member of such a service as aforesaid shall be dismissed or reduced in rank without being given a reasonable opportunity of being heard:

Provided that this Clause shall not apply to the following cases -

(a) where a member of such a service is dismissed or reduced in rank on the ground of conduct in respect of which a criminal charge has been proved against him; or

(b) where the authority empowered to dismiss or reduce in rank a member of such a service is satisfied that for some reason, to be recorded by that authority in writing, it is not reasonably practicable to carry out the requirements of this Clause: or

(c) where the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or, in the case of a member of the public service of a State, the Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of that State, is satisfied that in the interests of the security of the Federation or any part thereof it is not expedient to carry out the requirements of this Clause; or

(d) where there has been made against a member of such a service any order of detention, supervision, restricted residence, banishment or deportation, or where there has been imposed on such a member any form of restriction or supervision by bond or otherwise, under any law relating to the security of the Federation or any part thereof, prevention of crime, preventive detention, restricted residence, banishment, immigration, or protection of women and girls:

Provided further that for the purpose of this Article, where the service of a member of such a service is terminated in the public interest under any law for the time being in force or under any regulation made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong under Article 132 (2), such termination of service shall not constitute dismissal whether or not the decision to terminate the service is connected with the misconduct of or unsatisfactory performance of duty by such member in relation to his office or the consequences of the termination involved an element of punishment; and this proviso shall be deemed to have been an integral part of this Article as form Merdeka Day.

(3) No member of any of the services mentioned in paragraph (c), (f) or (g) of Clause (1) of Article 132 shall, without the concurrence of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, be dismissed or reduced in rank or suffer any other disciplinary measure for anything done or omitted by him in the exercise of a judicial function conferred on him by law.

Article 136

All persons of whatever race in the same grade in the service of the Federation shall, subject to the terms and conditions of thier employment, be treated impartially.

Article 137

(1) There shall be an Armed Forces Council, which shall be responsible under the general authority of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong for the command, disciplne and administration of, and all other matters relating to, the armed forces, other than matters relating to their operatonial use.

(2) Clause (1) has effect subject to the provisions od any federal law, and any such law may provide for the vesting in the Armed Forces Council of any functions with respect to the armed forces.

(3) The Armed Forces Council shall consist of the following members, that is to say -

(a) the Minister for the time being charged with responsibility for defence, who shall be Chairman;

(b) one member representing Their Royal Highnesses, who shall be appointed by the Conference of Rulers;

(c) the Chief of the Armed Forces Staff who shall be appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong;

(d) a civilian member, being the person performing the duties of the office of Secretary general for Defence, who shall act as Secretary to the Council;

(e) two senior staff officers of the Federation Armed Forces, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong;

(f) a senior officer of the Federation Navy, appointed by the Yang di- Pertuan Agong;

(g) a senior officer for the Federation Air Force, appointed by the Yang di- Pertuan Agong;

(h) two, if any, additional members, whether military or civilian, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

(4) The Armed Forces Council may act notwithstanding a vacancy in its membership and may, subject to this Constitution and to federal law, provide for all or any of the following matters:

(a) the organization of its work and the manner in which its functions are to be performed, and the keeping of records and minutes;

(b) the duties and responsibilities of the several members of the Council, including the delegation to any member of the Council of any of its powers or duties;

(c) the consultation by the Council with persons other than its members;

(d) the procedure to be followed by the Council in conducting its business (including the fixing of a quorum), the appointment, at its option, of a vice-chairman from among its members, and the functions of the vice- chairman;

(e) any other matters for which the Council considers it necessary or expedient to provide for the better performance of its functions.

Article 138

(1) There shall be a Judicial and Legal Service Commission, whose jurisdiction shall extend to all members of the judicial, and legal service.

(2) The Judicial and Legal Service Commission shall consist of -

(a) the Chairman of the Public Services Commission, who shall be Chairman;

(b) the Attorney General or, if the Attorney General is a member of Parliament or is appointed otherwise than from among members of the Judicial and Legal Service, the Solicitor General; and

(c) one or more other members who shall be appointed by the Yang di- Pertuan Agong, after consultation with the Lord President of the Supreme Court, from among persons who are or have been or are qualified to be a judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court or shall before Malaysia Day have been a of the Supreme Court or a High Court or shall before Malaysia Day have been a judge of the Supreme Court.

(3) The person who is secretary to the Public Services Commission shall be secretary also to the Judicial and Legal Service Commission.

Article 139

(1) There shall be a Public Services Commission, whose jurisdiction shall, subject to Article 144, extend to all persons who are members of the services mentioned in paragraphs (c), (e) and (f) of Clause (1) of Article 132, other than the Auditor General, to members of the public services of the State of Malacca and the State of Penang, and, to the extent provided by Clause (2), to members of the public service of any other State.

(1A) The jurisdiction of the Public Services Commission shall extend to -

(a) members of the general public service of the Federation who are employed in a federal department in the State of Sabah or Sarawak;

(b) members of the public service of the State of Sabah or Sarawak who are seconded to the general public service of the Federation; and

(c) members of the public service of the State of Sabah or Sarawak serving in federal posts or in any posts which have become federal posts in that State and who have exercised the option to be members of the general public service of the Federation.

(2) The legislature of any State other than Malacca and Penang may by law extend the jurisdiction of the Public Services Commission to all or any persons in the public service of that State, but no such law shall take effect earlier than twelve months from the date of its passing; and if at any time there is not, in any such State in which no such law is in force, established and exercising its functions a State Public Service such authority as may be provided in that law, and in that event, if the authority is other than the Commission, the disciplinary control exercisable by such authority shall not be exercised by the Commission;

and no provision of such law shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with any provision of this Part.

(3) Federal law may provide for the exercise of other functions by the Police Force Commission.

(4) The Police Force Commission shall consist of the following members, that is to say:

(a) the Minister for the time being charged with responsibility for the police, who shall be Chairman;

(b) the officer of police in general command of the police force;

(c) the person performing the duties of the office of Secretary General to the Ministry under the Minister for the time being charged with responsibility for the police;

(d) a member of the Public Services Commission appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong;

(e) not less than two nor more than six other members, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

(5) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may designate as special posts the posts of Inspector-General of Police, Deputy Inspector-General of Police and any other posts in the police force which in his opinion are of similar or superior status; and the appointment to any post so designated shall not be made in accordance with Clause (1) but shall be made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the recommendation of the Police Force Commission.

(6) Before acting in accordance with Clause (4) on the recommendation of the Police Force Commission, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall consider the advice of Commission, the jurisdiction of the Public Services Commission shall, if federal law so provides, extend to all members of the public service of that State.

(7) Any extension of the jurisdiction of the Public Service Commission made by the legislature of any State pursuant to Clause (2) may be revoked or modified by a law passed by the legislature of such State.

(8) The Public Services Commission shall consist of the following members appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong in his discretion but after considering the advice of the Prime Minister and after consultation with the Conference of Rulers, that is to say, a chairman, a deputy chairman and not less than four nor more than thirty other members.

(9) Either the chairman or the deputy chairman shall be, and both may be, appointed from among persons who are, or have at any time within the period of five years immediately preceding the date of their first appointment been, members of any of the public services.

(10) A member of any of the public services appointed to be chairman or deputy chairman shall not be eligible for any further appointment in the service of the Federation other than as a member of a Commission to which this Part applies.

Article 140

(1) There shall be a Police Force Commission whose jurisdiction shall extend to all persons who are members of the police force and which, subject to the provisions of any existing law, shall be responsible for the appointment, confirmation, emplacement on the permanent or pensionable establishment, promotion, transfer and exercise of disciplinary control over members of the police force:

Provided that Parliament may by law provide for the exercise of such disciplinary control over all or any of the members of the police force in such manner and by the Prime Minister, and may once refer the recommendation back to the Commission in order that it may be reconsidered.

(2) The Police Force Commission may provide for all or any of the following matters:

(a) the organisation of its work and the manner in which its functions are to be performed, and the keeping of records and minutes;

(b) the duties and responsibilities of the several members of the Commission, including the delegation to any member of the Commission or the police force or board of officers of such force or a committee consisting of members of the Commission and of the force of its powers or duties;

(c) the consultation by the Commission with persons other than its members;

(d) the procedure to be followed by the Commission in conducting its business (including the fixing of a quorum), the appointment, at its option, of a vice-chairman from among its members, and the functions of the vice- chairman;

(e) any other matters for which the Commission considers it necessary or expedient to provide for the better performance of its functions.

(3) In this Article “transfer” does not include transfer without change of rank within the police force.

Article 141

(Repealed).

Article 141A

(1) There shall be an Education Service Commission, whose jurisdiction shall, subject to Article 144, extend to all persons who are members of the service mentioned in paragraph (h) of Clause (1) of Article 132).

(2) The Education Service Commission shall consist of the following members appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong in his discretion but after considering the advice of the Prime Minister and after consultation with the Conference of Rulers, that is to say, a Chairman, a Deputy Chairman and not less than four but not more than eight other members.

(3) A member of any of the public services appointed to be Chairman or Deputy Chairman shall not be eligible for any further appointment in the service of the Federation other than as a member of a Commission to which this Part applies.

Article 142

(1) Subject to paragraph (a) of Clause (3) of Article 140, a member of either House of Parliament or of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall not be appointed to be a member of a Commission to which this Part applies.

(2) Subject to Clause (3), a person shall not be appointed to be a member of any of the Commissions to which this Part applies if he is, and shall be removed by order of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong if he becomes -

(a) a member of any of the public services;

(b) an officer or employee of any local authority, or of any body, whether corporate or otherwise, or of any body or authority established by law for public purposes;

(c) a member of a trade union or of a body or association affiliated to a trade union.

(2A) In addition to any disqualification provided under Clause (2), the chairman of any of the Commissions to which this Part applies shall be disqualified from holding such office if after three months of his appointment to such office or at any time thereafter he is or becomes a member of any board of directors or board of management, or an officer or employee, or engages in the affairs or business, of any organisation or body, whether corporate or otherwise, or of any commercial, industrial or other undertaking, whether or not be receives any remuneration, reward, profit or benefit from it:

Provided that such disqualification shall not apply where such organisation or body carries out any welfare or voluntary work or objective beneficial to the community or any part thereof, or any other work or objective of a charitable or social nature, and the member does not receive any remuneration, reward, profit or benefit from it.

(3) Clause (2) does not apply to ex officio members; and a member of any of the public services may be appointed to be and remain chairman or deputy chairman and, if he is on leave prior to retirement, he may be appointed to be another member, of any of the said Commissions.

(3A) Where, during any period, the chairman of any of the said Commissions has been granted leave of absence by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or is unable owing to his absence from the Federation, illness or any other cause, to discharge his functions, the deputy chairman of that Commission shall discharge the functions of the chairman during that period, and if the deputy chairman is also absent or unable to discharge such functions, a member of the Commission may be appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to discharge the functions of the chairman during that period.

(4) Where, during any period, a member of any of the said Commissions has been granted leave of absence by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or is unable, owing to his absence from the Federation, illness or any other cause, to discharge his functions as a member, then -

(a) if he is an appointed member, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may appoint to exercise his functions during that period any person who would be qualified to be appointed in his place, and the appointment of such a person shall be made in the same manner as that of the member whose functions he is to exercise;

(b) if he is an ex officio member, any person authorised under federal law to perform the functions of his office may during that period perform also his functions as a member of the Commission.

(5) A Commission to which this Part applies may act notwithstanding a vacancy in its membership, and no proceedings of such a Commission shall be invalidated by reason only that some person not entitled thereto has taken part in them.

(6) Before exercising his functions as a member of any of the said Commissions or under Clause (4) any person other than an ex officio member shall take and subscribe before a judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court the oath of office and allegiance set out in the Sixth Schedule.

Article 143

(1) Save as provided under Clause (2) of Article 142, a member of a Commission to which this Part applies, other than an ex officio member -

(a) shall be appointed for a term of five years or, if the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, acting in his discretion but after considering the advice of the Prime Minister, in a particular case so determines, for such shorter term as he may so determine;

(b) may, unless disqualified, be re-appointed from time to time; and

(c) may at any time resign his office but shall not be removed from office except on the like grounds and in the like manner as a judge of the Supreme Court.

(2) Parliament shall be law provide for the remuneration of any member of the

said Commission other than a member for whose remuneration as holder of any other office provision is made by federal law; and the remuneration so provided shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund.

(3) The remuneration and other terms of office of a member of a Commission to which this Part applies shall not be altered to his disadvantage after his appointment.

Article 144

(1) Subject to the provisions of any existing law and to the provisions of this Constitution, it shall be the duty of a Commission to which this Part applies to appoint, confirm, emplace on the permanent or pensionable establishment, promote, transfer and exercise disciplinary control over members of the service or services to which its jurisdiction extends.

(2) Federal law may provide for the exercise of other functions by any such Commission.

(3) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may designate as special posts any post held by the head or deputy head of a department or by an officer who in his opinion is of similar status and the appointment to any post so designated shall not be made in accordance with Clause (1) but shall be made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the recommendation of the Commission whose jurisdiction extends to the service in which the post is held.

(4) The Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of a State may designate as special posts any posts in the public service of his State held by the head or deputy head of a department or by an officer who in his opinion is of similar status: and the appointment to any post so designated shall not be made in accordance with Clause (1) but shall be made by the Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri on the recommendation of the Public Services Commission (or, if there is in the State a State Public Service Commission, on the recommendation of that Commission).

(5) Before acting, in accordance with Clause (3) or (4), on the recommendation of the Commission therein mentioned -

(a) the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall consider the advice of the Prime Minister; and

(b) the Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri shall consider the advice of the Chief Minister of his State, and may once refer the recommendation back to the Commission in order that it may be reconsidered.

(5A) Save as provided in Clause (5B), federal law and, subject to the provisions

of any such law, regulations made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may, notwithstanding the provisions of Clause (1) of Article 135, provide for the exercise by any officer in a service to which the jurisdiction of a Commission to which this Part applies extends, or by any board of such officers, of any of the functions of the Commission under Clause (1): Provided that -

(a) no such law or regulation may provide for the exercise by any such officer or board of officers of any power of first appointment to the permanent or pensionable establishment, or of any power of promotion (other than promotion to an acting appointment); and

(b) any person aggrieved by the exercise by any such officer or board of officers of any power of disciplinary control may appeal to the Commission within such time and in such manner as may be prescribed by any such law or regulations, and the Commission may make such order thereon as it may consider just.

(5B)

(i) Notwithstanding the provisions of Clause (1) of Article 135 and Article 139 and Article 141A, all the powers and functions of the Public Services Commission or the Education Service Commission established under Article 139 and Article 141A, other than the power of first appointment to the permanent or pensionable establishment, may be exercised by a board appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

(ii) Any person aggrieved by the exercise by the board of any of the aforesaid powers or functions may appeal to an Appeal Board appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

(iii) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may by regulations provide for matters relating to the appointments of the members of, and the procedure to be followed by, the board or the Appeal Board under this Clause.

(iv) Where the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has appointed the board under paragraph (i) of this Clause for the purpose of exercising any of the powers or functions referred to under that paragraph, such power or function shall so long as it remains a power or function to be exercised by the board, cease to be exercisable by the said Commission.

(6) A Commission to which this Part applies may delegate to any officer in a service to which its jurisdiction extends, or to any board of such officers appointed by it, any of its functions under Clause (1) in respect of any grade of service, and that officer or board shall exercise those functions under the direction and the control of the Commission.

(6A) In respect of members of the general public service of the Federation who are employed in posts ancillary to the armed forces or any of them or to the police force, or in respect of any grade of members of that service who are so employed, functions of the Public Services Commission may, under Clause (5A) or (6), be made exercisable by an officer or board of officers of the armed forces or police force, as the case may be, as if he or they were members of the general public service of the Federation.

(7) In this Article “transfer” does not include transfer without change of rank within a department of Government.

(8) A Commission to which this Part applies may, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and of federal law, make rules regulating its procedure and specifying the number of its members which are to constitute a quorum.

Article 145

(1) The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint a person who is qualified to be a judge of the Supreme Court to be the Attorney General for the Federation.

(2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney General to advise the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the Cabinet or any Minister upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the Cabinet, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other written law.

(3) The Attorney General shall have power, exercisable at his discretion, to institute, conduct or discontinue any proceedings for an offence, other than proceedings before a Syariah court, a native court or a court-martial.

(4) In the performance of his duties the Attorney General shall have the right of audience, in, and shall take precedence over any other person appearing before, any court or tribunal in the Federation.

(5) Subject to Clause (6), the Attorney General shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and may at any time resign his office and, unless he is a member of the Cabinet, shall receive such remuneration as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong may determine.

(6) The person holding the office of Attorney General immediately prior to the coming into operation of this Article shall continue to hold the office on terms and conditions not less favourable than those applicable to him immediately before such coming into operation and shall not be removed from office except on the like grounds and in the like manner as a judge of the Supreme Court.

Article 146

(1) Each of the Commissions to which this Part applies shall make an annual report on its activities to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and copies of those reports shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament.

(2) The Public Services Commission shall send a copy of every report made under this Article to the Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of each State to members of whose public service their jurisdiction extends, and the Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri shall lay it before the Legislative Assembly.

Article 146A

(Repealed).

Article 146B

(Repealed).

Article 146C

(Repealed).

Article 146D

Notwithstanding Clause (2) of Article 134, the jurisdiction of the Police Force Commission shall extend to embers of the public service of the State of Sabah or Sarawak who are seconded to the police force; and for purposes of the Police Force Commission they shall be deemed to be members of the police force.

(2) (Repealed).

(3) (Repealed).

Article 147

(1) The law applicable to any pension, gratuity or other like allowance (in this Article referred to as an “award”) granted to a member of any of the public services, or to his widow, children, dependant or personal representatives, shall be that in force on the relevant day or any later law not less favourable to the person to whom the award is made.

(2) For the purposes of this Article the relevant day is -

(a) in relation to an award made before Merdeka Day, the date on which the award was made;

(b) in relation to an award made after Merdeka Day to or in respect of any person who was a member of any of the public services before Merdeka Day, the thirtieth day of August, nineteen hundred and fifty-seven;

(c) in relation to an award made to or in respect of any person who first became a member of any of the public services on or after Merdeka Day, the date on which he first became such a member.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, where the law applicable to an award depends on the option of the person to whom it is made, the law for which he opts shall be taken to be more favourable to him than any other law for which he might have opted.

Article 148

(1) References in this Constitution to a Commission to which this Part applies are, unless the context otherwise requires, references to any of the Commissions established under Articles 138 to 141A.

(2) In this Part “ex officio member” includes a Minister and a judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court and “State Public Service Commission” means, in relation to any State, a Commission exercising functions in respect of members of the public service of the State and corresponding in status and jurisdiction to the Public Services Commission.

Next: Chapter 11 – Special Powers against Subversion, Organised Violence, and Act and Crimes Prejudicial to the Public and Emergency Powers