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Constitution of Jordan – 2: Rights and Duties of Jordanians

CHAPTER TWO

RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF JORDANIANS

 

Article 5

Jordanian Nationality shall be defined by law.

 

Article 6

(i) Jordanians shall be equal before the law. There shall be no discrimination between them as regards to their rights and duties on grounds of race, language or religion.

(ii) The government shall ensure work and education within the limits of its possibilities, and it shall ensure a state of tranquillity and equal opportunities to all Jordanians.

Article 7

Personal freedom shall be guaranteed.

Article 8

No person may be detained or imprisoned except in accordance with the provisions of the law.

Article 9

(i) No Jordanian may be deported from the territory of the Kingdom.

(ii) No Jordanian may be prevented from residing at any place, or be compelled to reside in any specified place, except in the circumstances prescribed by law.

Article 10

Dwelling houses shall be inviolable and shall not be entered except in the circumstances and in the manner prescribed by law.

Article 11

No property of any person may be expropriated except for purposes of public utility and in consideration of a just compensation, as may be prescribed by law.

Article 12

No loans may be forcibly imposed and no property, movable or immovable, may be confiscated except in accordance with the law.

Article 13

Compulsory labour may not be imposed on any person, but any person may be required to do any work or to render any service in circumstances prescribed by law, as stated hereunder:

(i) In a state of necessity, such as a state of war, the occurrence of a public danger, or fire, flood, famine, earthquake, serious epidemic among human beings or animals or animal diseases, insects or pests or any other similar events, or in any other circumstances which might endanger the safety of the population, in whole or in part.

(ii) As a result of the conviction of the person concerned by a court of law, provided that the work is done and the service rendered under the supervision of an official authority and provided further that no convicted person shall be hired to, or be placed at the disposal of, any persons, companies, societies or public bodies.

Article 14

The State shall safeguard the free exercise of all forms of worship and religious rites in accordance with the customs observed in the Kingdom, unless such is inconsistent with public order or morality.

Article 15

(i) The State shall guarantee freedom of opinion. Every Jordanian shall be free to express his opinion by speech, in writing, or by means of photographic representation and other forms of expression, provided that such does not violate the law.

(ii) Freedom of the press and publications shall be ensured within the limits of the law.

(iii) Newspapers shall not be suspended from publication nor shall their permits be revoked except in accordance with the provisions of the law.

(iv) In the event of the declaration of martial law or a state of emergency, a limited censorship on newspapers, publications, books and broadcasts in matters affecting public safety and national defence may be imposed by law.

(v) Control of the resources of newspaper shall be regulated by law.

Article 16

(i) Jordanians shall have the right to hold meetings within the limits of the law.

(ii) Jordanians are entitled to establish societies and political parties provided that the objects of such societies and parties are lawful, their methods peaceful, and their by-laws not contrary to the provisions of the Constitution.

(iii) The establishment of societies and political parties and the control of their resources shall be regulated by law.

Article 17

Jordanians are entitled to address the public authorities on any personal matters affecting them, or on any matter relative to public affairs, in such a manner and under such conditions as may be prescribed by law.

Article 18

All postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications shall be treated as secret and as such shall not be subject to censorship or suspension except in circumstances prescribed by law.

Article 19

Congregations shall have the right to establish and maintain their own schools for the education of their own members provided that they comply with the general provisions of the law and be subject to the control of Government in matters relating to their curricula and orientation.

Article 20

Elementary education shall be compulsory for Jordanians and free of charge in Government schools.

Article 21

(i) Political refugees shall not be extradited on account of their political beliefs or for their defence of liberty.

(ii) Extradition of ordinary criminals shall be regulated by international agreements and laws.

Article 22

(i) Every Jordanian shall be entitled to be appointed to public offices under such conditions as are prescribed by law or regulations.

(ii) Appointment to any government office or to any establishment attached to the Government, or to any municipal office, whether such appointment is permanent or temporary, shall be made on the basis of merit and qualifications.

Article 23

(i) Work is the right of every citizen, and the State shall provide opportunities for work to all citizens by directing the national economy and raising its standards.

(ii) The State shall protect labour and enact legislation therefore based on the following principles:

(a) Every worker shall receive wages commensurate with the quantity and quality of his work.

(b) The number of hours of work per week shall be defined. Workers shall be given weekly and annual days of paid rest.

(c) Special compensation shall be given to workers supporting families and on dismissal, illness, old age and emergencies arising out of the nature of their work.

(d) Special conditions shall be made for the employment of women and juveniles.

(e) Factories and workshops shall be subject to health safeguards.

(f) Free trade unions may be formed within the limits of the law.

Next: Chapter 3 – Powers: General Provisions

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