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Constitution of Indonesia – 1: Form of the State and Sovereignty

The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
As amended by the First Amendment of 1999, the Second Amendment of 2000, the Third
Amendment of 2001 and the Fourth Amendment of 2002
Unofficial translation


Whereas independence is the inalienable right of all nations, therefore, all colonialism must be  abolished in this world as it is not in conformity with humanity and justice; And the moment of  rejoicing has arrived in the struggle of the Indonesian independence movement to guide the  people safely and well to the gate of the independence of the state of Indonesia which shall be  independent, united, sovereign, just and prosperous; By the grace of God Almighty and motivated  by the noble desire to live a free national life, the people of Indonesia hereby declare their  independence.

Subsequent thereto, to form a government of the state of Indonesia which shall protect all the  people of Indonesia and all the independence and the land that has been struggled for, and to  improve public welfare, to educate the life of the people and to participate toward the  establishment of a world order based on freedom, perpetual peace and social justice, therefore  the independence of Indonesia shall be formulated into a constitution of the Republic of Indonesia  which shall be built into a sovereign state based on a belief in the One and Only God, just and  civilised humanity, the unity of Indonesia, and democratic life led by wisdom of thoughts in deliberation amongst representatives of the people, and achieving social justice for all the people of Indonesia.

Chapter One
Form of the State and Sovereignty

Article 1

  1. The State of Indonesia shall be a unitary state in the form of a republic.
  2. Sovereignty is in the hands of the people and is implemented according to this Constitution.
  3. The State of Indonesia shall be a state based on the rule of law.

Next: Chapter 2 - The People’s Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR)

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