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Constitution of Egypt – 4: Sovereignty of the Law

Chapter four: Sovereignty of the Law

Art.64: The Sovereignty of the law is the basis of State rule.

Art.65: The State shall be subject to law. The independence and immunity of the judicature are two basic guarantees to safeguard rights and liberties.

Art.66: Penalty shall be personal. There shall be no crime or penalty except by virtue of the law. No penalty shall be inflicted except by a judicial sentence. Penalty shall be inflicted only for acts committed subsequent to the promulgation of the law prescribing them.

Art.67: Any defendant is innocent until he is proved guilty before a legal court, in which he is granted the right to defend himself. Every person accused of a crime must be provided with counsel for his defence.

Art.68: The right to litigation is inalienable for all, and every citizen has the right to refer to his competent judge. The State shall guarantee the accessibility of the judicature organs to litigants, and the rapidity of statuting on cases. Any provision in the law stipulating the immunity of any act or administrative decision from the control of the judicature shall be prohibited.

Art.69: The right of defence in person or by power of attorney shall be guaranteed. The law shall grant the financially incapable citizens the means to resort to justice and defend their rights.

Art.70: No penal lawsuit shall be sued except by an order from a judicature organ with the exception of cases defined by law.

Art.71: Any person arrested or detained shall be informed forthwith of the reasons for his arrest or his detention. He shall have the right to communicate with whoever he sees fit and inform them of what has taken place and to ask for help in the way organized by law. He must be notified, as soon as possible, with the charges directed against him. Any person may lodge a complaint to the courts against any measure taken to restrict his personal freedom. The Law shall regulate the right of complaint in a manner ensuring a decision regarding it within a definite period or else release shall be imperative.

Art.72: Sentences shall be passed and executed in the name of the people. Likewise refraining from executing sentences or obstructing them on the part of the concerned civil servants shall be considered a crime punishable by law. In this case, those whom the sentence is in favour of, shall have the right to sue a direct penal lawsuit before the competent court.

Next: Chapter 5- The Head of the State, The People’s Assembly, The Executive Authority, The Judiciary Authority, The Supreme Constitutional Court, The Socialist Public Prosecutor, The Armed Forces and The National Defence Council, The Police

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