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Constitution of Egypt – 2: Social and Moral Constituents, Economic Constituents

Chapter two

Part One: Social and Moral Constituents

Art.7: Social solidarity is the basis of society.

Art.8: The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to all Egyptians.

Art.9: The family is the basis of the society founded on religion, morality and patriotism. The State is keen to preserve the genuine character of the Egyptian family- with all values and  traditions represented by it- while affirming and promoting this character in the interplay of  relations within the Egyptian society.

Art.11: The State shall guarantee coordination between woman’s duties towards her family and her work in the society, considering her equal to man in the political, social, cultural and  economic spheres without detriment to the rules of Islamic jurisprudence (Sharia).

Art.12: Society shall be committed to safeguarding and protecting morals, promoting the  genuine Egyptian traditions and abiding by the high standards of religious education, moral  and national values, and the historical heritage of the people, scientific facts, socialist conduct  and public manners within the limits of the law. The State is committed to abiding by these  principles and promoting them.

Art.13: Work is a right, a duty and an honour ensured by the State. Distinguished workers  shall be worthy of the appreciation of the State and the society. No work shall be imposed on  citizens, except by virtue of the law, for the performance of a public service and in return for a  fair remuneration.

Art.14: Citizens are entitled to public offices, which are assigned to those who shall occupy  them in the service of people. The State guarantees the protection of public officers in the  performance of their duties in safeguarding the interests of the people. They may not be dismissed by other than the disciplinary way except in the cases specified by the law.

Art.15: War veterans and those injured during wars or because of them, martyrs’ wives and  children shall have priority in work opportunities according to the law.

Art.16: The State shall guarantee cultural, social and health services and shall work to ensure them particularly for villagers in an easy and regular manner in order to raise their standard.

Art.17: The State shall guarantee social and health insurance services. All citizens shall have  the right to pensions in cases of incapacity, unemployment, and old-age in accordance with  the law.

Art.18: Education is a right guaranteed by the State. It is obligatory in the primary stage. The  State shall work to extend obligation to other stages. The State shall supervise all branches of  education and guarantee the independence of universities and scientific research centers, with a view to linking all this with the requirements of society and production.

Art.19: Religious education shall be a principal subject in the courses of general education.

Art.20: Education in the State: Educational institutions shall be free of charge in their various stages.

Art.21: Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty for which all the people’s capacity shall be mobilized.

Art.22: The institution of civil titles shall be prohibited.
Part Two: Economic Constituents

Art.23: The national economy shall be organised in accordance with a comprehensive  development plan which ensures raising the national income, fair distribution, raising the  standard of living, solving the problem of unemployment, increasing work opportunities, connecting wages with production, fixing a minimum and maximum limit for wages in a manner that guarantees lessening the disparities between incomes

Art.24: The people shall control all means of production and direct their surplus in accordance with development plan laid down by the State.

Art.25: Every citizen shall have a share in the national revenue to be defined by law in accordance with his work or his unexploiting ownership.

Art.26: Workers shall have a share in the management and profits of projects. They shall be committed to the development of production and the implementation of the plan in their production units, in accordance with the law. Protecting the means of production is a national duty. Workers shall be represented on the boards of directors of the public sector units by at  least 50% of the number of members of these boards. The law shall guarantee for the small farmers and small craftsmen 80%of the membership on the boards of directors of the agricultural and industrial co-operatives.

Art.27: Beneficiaries shall participate in the management of the services projects of public interest and their supervision in accordance with the law.

Art.28: The State shall look after the co-operative establishments in all their forms and encourage handicrafts with a view to developing production and raising income. The State shall endeavour to support agricultural co-operatives according to modern scientific bases.

Art.29: Ownership shall be under the supervision of the people and the protection of the State. There are three kinds of ownership: public ownership, co-operative ownership and private ownership.

Art.30: Public ownership is the ownership of the people and it is confirmed by the continuous support of the public sector. The public sector shall be the vanguard of progress in all spheres and shall assume the main responsibility in the development plan.

Art.31: Co-operative ownership is the ownership of the co-operative societies. The law shall guarantee its protection and self-management.

Art.32: Private ownership shall be represented by the unexploiting capital. The law shall organize the performance of its social function in the service of the national economy within the framework of the development plan, without deviation or exploitation. The ways of its utilization should not contradict the general welfare of the people.

Art.33: Public ownership shall have its sanctity. Its protection and support shall be the duty of every citizen in accordance with the law as it is considered the mainstay of the strength of the homeland, a basis for the socialist system and a source of prosperity for the people.

Art.34: Private ownership shall be safeguarded and may not be placed under sequestration except in the cases defined by law and in accordance with a judicial decision. It may not be expropriated except for the general good and against a fair compensation as defined by law. The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed in it.

Art.35: Nationalization shall not be allowed except for considerations of public interest and in accordance with a law and against a compensation.

Art.36: General confiscation of funds shall be prohibited. Private confiscation shall not be allowed except by a judicial decision.

Art.37: The law shall fix the maximum limit of land ownership with a view to protecting the farmer and the agricultural labourer from exploitation and asserting the authority of the alliance of the people’s working forces in villages.

Art.38: The tax system shall be based on social justice

Art.39: Saving is a national duty protected, encouraged and organized by the State.

Next: Chapter 3- Public Freedoms, Rights and Duties

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