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Constitution of Afghanistan – 1: State

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

(Ratified) January 26, 2004

Preamble

In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficient, the Most Merciful

Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of Worlds; and Praise and Peace be upon Mohammad,

His Last Messenger and his disciples and followers

We the people of Afghanistan:

  • Believing firmly in Almighty God, relying on His divine will and adhering to the Holy religion of Islam;
  • Realizing the previous injustices, miseries and innumerable disasters which have befallen our country;
  • Appreciating the sacrifices, historical struggles, jihad and just resistance of all the peoples of Afghanistan, admiring the supreme position of the martyr’s of the country’s freedom;
  • Comprehending that a united, indivisible Afghanistan belongs to all its tribes and peoples;
  • Observing the United Nations Charter as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

And in order to:

  • Strengthen national unity, safeguard independence, national sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country;
  • Establish an order based on the peoples’ will and democracy;
  • Form a civil society void of oppression, atrocity, discrimination as well as violence, based on rule of law, social justice, protecting integrity and human rights, and attaining peoples’ freedoms and fundamental rights;
  • Strengthen political, social, economic as well as defense institutions;
  • Attain a prosperous life and sound living environment for all inhabitants of this land;
  • And, eventually, regain Afghanistan’s appropriate place in the international family;

Have, herein, approved this constitution in accordance with the historical, cultural and social realities as well as requirements of time through our elected representatives in the Loya Jirga, dated January 3, 2004, held in the city of Kabul.

 

Chapter One: State

Article 1
Afghanistan shall be an Islamic Republic, independent, unitary and indivisible state.

Article 2
The sacred religion of Islam is the religion of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Followers of other faiths shall be free within the bounds of law in the exercise and performance of their religious rituals.

Article 3
No law shall contravene the tenets and provisions of the holy religion of Islam in Afghanistan.

Article 4
National sovereignty in Afghanistan shall belong to the nation, manifested directly and through its elected representatives. The nation of Afghanistan is composed of all individuals who possess the citizenship of Afghanistan. The nation of Afghanistan shall be comprised of Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkman, Baluch, Pachaie, Nuristani, Aymaq, Arab, Qirghiz, Qizilbash, Gujur, Brahwui and other tribes. The word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. No individual of the nation of Afghanistan shall be deprived of citizenship. The citizenship and asylum related matters shall be regulated by law.

Article 5
Implementing the provisions of this constitution and other laws, defending independence, national sovereignty, territorial integrity and attaining the security and defense capability of the country shall be the fundamental duties of the state.

Article 6
The state shall be obligated to create a prosperous and progressive society based on social justice, preservation of human dignity, protection of human rights, realization of democracy, attainment of national unity as well as equality between all peoples and tribes and balance development of all areas of the country.

Article 7
The state shall observe the United Nations Charter, inter-state agreements, as well as international treaties to which Afghanistan has joined, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The state shall prevent all kinds of terrorist activities, cultivation and smuggling of narcotics, and production and use of intoxicants.

Article 8
The state shall regulate the foreign policy of the country on the basis of preserving the independence, national interests and territorial integrity as well as non-interference, good neighborliness, mutual respect and equality of rights.

Article 9
Mines and other subterranean resources as well as historical relics shall be the property of the state. Protection, management and proper utilization of public properties as well as natural resources shall be regulated by law.

Article 10
The state shall encourage, protect as well as ensure the safety of capital investment and private enterprises in accordance with the provisions of the law and market economy.

Article 11
Matters related to domestic as well as foreign trade shall be regulated by law in accordance with the economic requirements of the country and public interests.

Article 12
Da Afghanistan Bank shall be independent and the central bank of the state. Currency issuance as well as formulating and implementing the monetary policy of the country shall be, according to provisions of the law, the authority of the central bank. The central bank shall consult the economic committee of the House of People about printing of money. The organization and operation method of Central Bank shall be regulated by law.

Article 13
The state shall design and implement effective programs for developing industries, expanding production as well as protecting activities of craftsmen to raise the standard of living of the people.

Article 14
The state, within its financial means, shall design and implement effective programs to develop agriculture and animal husbandry, improve economic, social and living conditions of farmers, herders and settlers as well as the nomads’ livelihood. The state shall adopt necessary measures for provision of housing and distribution of public estates to deserving citizens in accordance with the provisions of law and within financial possibilities.

Article 15
The state shall be obligated to adopt necessary measures to protect and improve forests as well as the living environment.

Article 16
From amongst Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pachaie, Nuristani, Pamiri and other current languages in the country, Pashto and Dari shall be the official languages of the state. In areas where the majority of the people speak in any one of Uzbeki, Turkmani, Pachaie, Nuristani, Baluchi or Pamiri languages, any of the aforementioned language, in addition to Pashto and Dari, shall be the third official language, the usage of which shall be regulated by law. The state shall design and apply effective programs to foster and develop all languages of Afghanistan. Usage of all current languages in the country shall be free in press publications and mass media. Academic and national administrative terminology and usage in the country shall be preserved.

Article 17
The state shall adopt necessary measures to foster education at all levels, develop religious teachings, regulate and improve the conditions of mosques, religious schools as well as religious centers.

Article 18
The source for the calendar year of the country shall be based upon the migration of The Prophet (PBUH). The basis for state offices shall be the solar calendar. Fridays, as well as the 28th of Asad and 8th of Saur, shall be public holidays. Other holidays shall be regulated by law.

Article 19
The flag of Afghanistan shall be made up of three equal parts, with black, red and green colors juxtaposed from left to right vertically. The width of every color shall be half of its length, and at the center of which the national insignia shall be located. The national insignia of Afghanistan shall be comprised of an emblem and a pulpit in white color—at the two corners of which are two flags, inscribed in the top middle the holy phrase “There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his Prophet, and Allah is Great.” This shall be inscribed and superseded on rays of a rising sun, and in its lower part, the year 1919 in the solar calendar, and the word “Afghanistan” encircled on two sides by sheaves of wheat shall be inscribed. The law shall regulate the use of the flag and insignia.

Article 20
The national anthem of Afghanistan shall be in Pashto with the mention of “God is Great” as well as the names of the tribes of Afghanistan.

Article 21
The capital of Afghanistan shall be the city of Kabul.

Next: Chapter 2- Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens

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